Development of a Media Literacy Skills Scale
This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to identify the levels of media users’ media literacy skills. The scale development process was carried out in nine steps as recommended in the literature. Before the scale was administered, the items were reviewed by field experts and language experts and a pilot study was carried out. Responses from 322 pre-service teachers, selected via purposeful sampling, were included in the analysis. Item discrimination was tested via item-total correlation and it indicated that none of the items were below .30. In the confirmatory factor analysis, it was found out that the scale and the theoretical model showed a fit between good and acceptable. Convergent validity, divergent validity and 27% upper-lower group means were also examined. As for the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha value of the scale was calculated as .919 and alpha values of the factors were calculated as .768, .833, .720 and .838 respectively. The results revealed that Media Literacy Skills Scale, which consists of 45 items gathered under the four main factors of ‘access, analyze, evaluate and communicate’, is a reliable and valid measurement instrument. This up-to-date scale covers all main skills of media literacy and it consists of a sufficient number of questions to obtain rich data and ensure measurement precision. In addition, it covers new media as well as mass media and this way it fills a gap in the literature caused by the changing nature of media and technology.